Fill each of the gaps with a suitable word or phrase.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS ON CONSUMERISM

Vocabulary

LACK, SHORTAGE and EXCESS

I. The haves.

In Santa Maxima people were well-to-do, well off and well needed. They ate and drank to their hearts’ content and often to excess. They had plenty of delicacies to eat and ample fine wine to drink. There was an abundance of natural resources in the country and manifold crops were plentiful. Most people wanted for nothing: they had mountains of food, stacks of money, heaps ofstocks and shares and piles and piles of bonds and other assets.

II. The have-nots.

In San Minimo there was abject poverty. There were insufficient crops and an acute shortage of drinking water. Inadequate sanitation meant that standards of hygiene fell well below an acceptable norm. Rice was scarce and many were suffering from severe vitamin deficiency. What food they got was lacking in protein and low in nutritional value.

III. The vocabulary expressing lack, need, sufficiency and surfeit.

verbs and verbal phrases:

to require, to be in need of, (could) do with, (could) do without, to lack, to stuff yourself, to overdo it, to be crying out for, to satisfy a need, to be hard up, to be bereft of.

adjective + noun collocations:

in desperate need of, a plentiful supply, untold wealth/luxury, dire need, untapped resources, easy money, conspicuous consumption, surplus cash.

adverb + adjective collocations:

severely lacking in, desperately short of, barely adequate, fabulously wealthy, desperately poor, filthy rich.

adverb + verb collocations:

badly need, urgently require, obviously lack, want something desperately.

idiomatic phrases:

well-heeled, down-at-heel, down and out, on the breadline, more than enough, to run short of, be strapped for cash, to stuff yourself silly.

Rewrite each sentence using the two words below it.

1. We need somebody like you to help us. in/assistance

2. He may be inexperienced but he makes up for it by being enthusiastic. what/lacks

3. The pay increase didn’t come up to our expectations. short/hoped

4. The company’s profits have nearly doubled. up/100%

5. We don’t have to do anything about payment yet. need/done

6. The fact that they have so few vitamins in their diet is their biggest problem. vitamin/heart

7. ‘I guarantee you’ll have everything you want,’ the old man said to her. want/nothing

8. There don’t seem to be many talented athletes around at the moment. suffering/paucity



For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, but using the word given. This word must not be altered in any way.

1. I believe that footballers are grossly overpaid. much

2. At the moment there are sufficient restaurants in this area. short

3. There’s an acute shortage of vegetable crops in the north of the country. desperately

4. A few communities in the south are severely malnourished. enough

5. She was allowed everything she wanted as a child. nothing

6. We can’t go on much longer without a stable government. urgent

7. What we really need is someone with first-hand experience. could

8. They kept on playing on the computer for as long as they wanted to. content

9. Better education is something the country simply can’t do without. crying

10. There was a mountain of food on each plate. piled

Fill each of the gaps with a suitable word or phrase.

1. We hoped to be better off after the budget but in fact ………………………………. ever.

2. It was clear from their demeanour that they ………………………………. help.

3. This ugly old tree needs ………………………………. back a bit.

4. Don’t you think there’s a clear ………………………………. the company to be restructured?

5. Nobody nowadays ………………………………. on £30 a week, can they?

6. How anyone on such a high salary ………………………………. so down-at-heel is beyond me.

7. She has self-confidence ………………………………. abundance.

8. Until pay-day I’ve hardly ………………………………. on.

MONEY



Spending Money
lay out to spend money. especially a large amount
splash out to spend a lot of money on something you don't need, but is very pleasant
run up to create a large debt
fork out, fork over inf. to pay for something, usually something you would rather not have to pay for.
shell out inf. to pay for something, usually something you would rather not have to pay for.
cough up inf. to provide money for something you do no want to
Having Just Enough Money
get by to have just enough money for your needs
scrape by to manage to live on very little money
Helping Someone with Money
bail out to help a person or organization out of a difficult situation
tide over to help someone with money for a period of time until they have enough
Paying Debts
pay back to return money owed to someone
pay off to finish paying all money that is owed
Saving Money
save up to keep money for a large expense in the future
put aside to save money for a specific purpose
Using Saved Money
dip into to spend part of your saved money
break into to start to use money that you have saved

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